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1. Malhotra S; Pandyan AD; Rossewilliam S; Roffe C; Hermens H. Spasticity and contractures at the wrist after stroke:time course of development and their association with functional recovery of the upper limb. Clinical Rehabilitation 2011; 25: 184–191
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4. Bovend’Eerdt TJ, Newman M, Barker K,Dawes H, Minelli C, Wade DT. The effects of stretching in spasticity: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89:1395-406.
5. Malhotra S, Cousins E, Ward A, Day C, Jones P, Roffe C, Pandyan A. An investigation into the agreement between clinical, biomechanical and neurophysiological measures of spasticity. Clinical rehabilitation 2008; 22; 1105-1115
6. Petropoulou KB; Panourias JG; Rapidi CA; Sakas DE. The phenomenon of spasticity: a pathophysiological and clinical introduction to neuromodulation therapies. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2007 97(1) 137-144
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8. Patrick E, Ada L. The tardieu scale differentiates contracture from spasticity whereas the Ashworth Scale is confounded by it. Clinical rehabilitation 2006; 20; 173-182
9. Burridge JH, Wood DE, Hermens HJ, Voerman GE, Johnson GR, Wijck van F, Platz T, Gregoric M, Hitschcock R, Pandyan AD. Theoretical and methodological considerations in the measurement of spasticity. Disability and Rehabilitation 2005;
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10. Gracies JM. Pathophysiology of spastic paresis. I: paresis and soft tissue changes. Muscle&Nerve 2005 (31), 535-551
11. Lieber RL, Steinman S, Barash IA, Chambers H. Structural and functional changes in spastic skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve 2004; 29; 615-627
12. Pandyan AD; Cameron M; Powel J; Stott DJ; Granat MH. Contractures in the poststroke wrist: a pilot study of its time course of development and its association with upper limb recovery Clinical Rehabilitation 2003; 17: 88–95
13. Bohannon RW, Smith MB. Interrater reliability of a modified Ashworth Scale of muscle spasticity. Physical Therapy 1987; 67; 206-207

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